Updates:Page Started 10/24/18 Books Traumatic Brain Injury: Care and Treatment of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans by Amalia K. Corby-Edwards (2009) Links - Articles, Websites Online Library/Wiley:  Assessing and treating veterans with traumatic brain injury*.  By Louis M. French  Glenn W. Parkinson.  (2008/06/16)   https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20514 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jclp.20514 Excerpt:  Abstract:  Conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have resulted in greater proportions of service members with traumatic brain injury than in prior conflicts. These brain injuries range from the mild (concussion) to severe, and have enormous implications for clinical practice with these soldiers. The highly stressful and dangerous context in which these injuries are sustained set them apart in significant ways from brain injuries seen in civilian settings. The associated emotional toll of the environment and comorbid injuries, often resulting from blast exposure, complicates the clinical picture. In this article, the authors describe the complex presentations in this population of traumatically brain injured combat veterans and illustrate with case vignettes. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol: In Session 64:1–10, 2008. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jclp.20514 NCBI: Traumatic Brain Injury in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans: New Results from a National Random Sample Study (2017/01/25) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5501743/ Excerpt:  Loss of consciousness occurred in 87 (45.6%) veterans. Immediate symptoms following injury included feeling dazed, confused, or “seeing stars” (n=172, 90%), dizziness (n=125, 65.5%), blurred vision (n=104, 54.5%), loss of coordination (n=96, 50.5%) and ruptured eardrums (n=25, 13.0%). Post-traumatic amnesia was experienced by 37 (19.2%) veterans. Seven (3.8%) veterans experienced skull fracture and one (0.5%) veteran required brain surgery. Probable mild TBI accounted for 87.3% of injuries, probable moderate-to-severe TBI represented 12.7% of injuries….Compared to veterans with a single probable TBI during military service, veterans who sustained multiple head injuries (see Table 4) during military service experienced significantly higher rates of PTSD (62 % v. 28%), depression (62% v. 45 %), suicidal ideation (31% v. 17%), back pain (75% v. 54%) and any pain (75% v. 57%). There was no statistically significant difference in violence and headache. Huffington Post: Iraq Soldiers Wounded https://www.huffingtonpost.com/dan-froomkin/iraq-soldiers-wounded_b_1176276.html The Pentagon’s Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center reports having diagnosed 229,106 cases of mild to severe traumatic brain injury from 2000 to the third quarter of 2011, including both Iraq and Afghan vets. A 2008 study of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans by researchers at the RAND Corporation found that 14 percent screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 14 percent for major depression, with 19 percent reporting a probable traumatic brain injury during deployment. (The researchers found that major depression is “highly associated with combat exposure and should be considered as being along the spectrum of post-deployment mental health consequences.”) Applying those proportions to the 1.5 million veterans of Iraq, an estimated 200,000 of them would be expected to suffer from PTSD or major depression, with 285,000 of them having experienced a probable traumatic brain injury. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/dan-froomkin/iraq-soldiers-wounded_b_1176276.html
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